Volume 7 (2013) | Issue 1 | Issue 2 |

Issue 2, Pages 1-47


Bučko O., Hellová D., Debrecéni O.:
EFFECT OF ORGANIC ZINC OF PORK QUALITY, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FATTY ACID PROFILE OF MUSCULUS LONGISSIMUS THORACIS IN LARGE WHITE BREED
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (2): 1-6

The aim of the experiment was the analysis of the characteristics of the chemical composition of pork, determination of the parameters of physical and technological quality and profile of fatty acid of pork when using diet supplemented with organic zinc in musculus longissimus thoracis. The experiment was introduced in experimental centre of Department of Animal Husbandry of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra. There were 35 hybrid Large White Breed pigs used in this experiment. The animals were divided into the control group of 16 pigs and experimental group of 19 pigs. The control group was fed standard diet consisting of three feed rations applied in various growth phases - OŠ3 from 30 to 45 kg, OŠ4 from 45 to 70 kg, OŠ5 from 70 to 100 kg. The experimental group was fed the same feed mixtures in the same growth phases as control group and mineral-protein dough used for experimental group was enriched by zinc chelate of amino acid hydrate, which was 66 mg.kg-1. Based on two-factor analysis of variance we can state the following results. We found very highly significant differences at P ? 0.001 in 6 indicators of technological quality of pork: Content of zinc [ mg.kg- 1], pH24 [log.molc (H+)] ,total protein [ % ], total water [ % ], polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty [g.100g-1 FAME]. There were found highly significant differences at P ? 0.01 in 4 parameters of quality of pork in this experiment : pH1[log.molc (H+)] , CIE L* after 24 hours [ g.100g-1] , CIE b* after 7 days [ g.100g-1]. We found significant differences at P ? 0.05 in the indicators electrical conductivity [mS/cm-1] and CIE b* after 24 hours [ g.100g-1] . In other monitored indicators of pork quality was not confirmed statistical significance of the differences between the experimental and control group.


Brzobohatý L., Stupka R., Čítek J., Šprysl M., Okrouhlá M., Vehovský K., Kluzáková E.:
THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NUTRIENT COMPOSITION IN THE FEED ON THE MUSCLE FIBERS TYPOLOGY IN PIGS
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (2): 7-11

The study deals with the effects of different levels of crude protein in the feed on the muscle fibers typology in pigs. The test included 72 hybrid animals (barrows and gilts) of the Dx(LWDxL) genotype. The pigs were fattened ad-libitum in three feeding phases. All animals were divided into 3 groups according to the crude protein (CP) level intake. In order to monitor the quantitative (number) and qualitative (area, diameter) parameters of the muscle fibers, there were muscle samples taken from the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) muscle following the animals‘ slaughter. The study showed that pigs with the highest amount of rapeseed meal level in their diet showed the smallest (P<0.01) slow oxidative muscle I type fibers area (2 292 µm2). Furthermore, the highest (P<0.001) percentage of the type I muscle fibers (16 %) and their number/1 mm2 (31.0) were observed in the same group. The results show that different crude protein levels in the pig diet can affect their muscle fibers typology.

Okrouhlá M., Stupka R., Čítek J., Šprysl M., Brzobohatý L., Vehovský K., Kluzáková E.:
EFFECT OF LEAN MEAT PROPORTION AND GENDER ON AMINO ACID CONTENT IN PORK
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (2): 12-14

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of lean meat proportion and gender on amino acid content in carcass parts loin and ham. A total of 116 finishing hybrid pigs commonly used in the Czech Republic were fattened. The pigs were divided into 6 groups according to three lean meat proportion criterion (more than 60.0%, 55.0 – 59.9% and 50.0 – 54.9%) and according to gender (barrows and gilts). The amino acids in the carcass part musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) expect nonessential amino acid proline were not influenced by lean meat proportion and gender. Higher (P < 0.05) share of proline in MLLT had gilts with lean meat proportion 55.0 – 59.9% contrary to barrows with same lean meat proportion. Significantly (P < 0.05) the highest values of amino acids threonine (7.15%), phenylalanine (1.88%) and serine (6.28%) were detected in the carcass portion musculus semimembranosus (MS) in gilts with lean meat proportion more than 60.0% contrary to gilts from other two treatments. In addition, the values of valine, phenylalanine, serine, proline in barrows and threonine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, aspartic acid, serine, glycine and alanine in gilts in MS increased with an increasing lean meat proportion.

Nevrkla P., Hadaš Z.:
REPOPULATION METHOD FOR IMPROVMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SOWS
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (2): 15-19

The experiment was designed to evaluate differences in reproductive performance parametres in sows of selected utilitarian breeds before and after repopulation. The experimental population consisted of 160 sows, while the group before repopulation counted 80 sows from 1st to 5th litter. The repopulated (newly brought) group counted 80 gilts at the 1st litter. The values of the total number of piglets per litter were 12.21 ± 2.63 before repopulation against 15.96 ± 2.20 after repopulation. The nember of live-born piglets was 11.25 ± 2.43 before repopulation and 14.63 ± 2.09 after repopulation. Before repopulation 0,96 ± 0,99 of piglets were stillborn and after repopulation the number was 1.30 ± 1.36. The values of number of reared piglets were 9.69 ± 1.75 in the group before repopulation against 13.44 ± 1.79 in the group after repopulation. The differences in the total number of piglets, the number of live-born piglets and teh number of reared piglets were highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). The results of the experiment confirmed the positive effect of repopulation on reproductive performance parametres of sows.

Schlegel H., Fischer K., Wähner M.:
PRACTICAL ASPECTS FOR CLASSIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF PIGS BY DECISION TREES
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (2): 20-25

The potential of performance of breeding sows and other livestock gets described by a variety of data. Those data get analysed constantly. Aims of investigations are defined and approved. Therefore different methods are used, well known ones and relatively new ones. With the help of those different methods relationships should be represented and interpreted. One – in comparison – relatively new way of Data Mining is the classification with the help of decision trees. There is one big advantage, because decision trees do not have any conditions according to the scale and distribution of parameters. Many factors can get analysed at the same time. Different kinds of decision trees can be used for known and unknown interactions between parameters. That is also an advantage. For representation of the usage of decision trees in livestock production one practical example has been chosen. The main aim of this investigation is the interpretation of the results from a biological and economical point of view. In addition to that the way of using a decision tree should get demonstrated. In this case, 1.780 sows of one pig breeding farm are used. They got classified according to the parameter of number of total born piglets, live born piglets, weaned piglets and number of litter, sire and technician for insemination. It is very important to derive the correct sequence steps from the statistical results. That’s necessary for all interpretations.

Rozkot M. , Frydrychová S. , Benešová N. , Opletal L. :
SMALL MOLECULES OF NATURAL ORIGIN AS A SOURCE OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS IN PIG BREEDING - REVIEW
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (2): 26-33

The use of antibiotics is currently limited within the framework of the prevention of the infectious disease in farm animals in the EU. Formerly used antibiotic growth stimulators markedly enhanced the quality of animal breeding and decreased the incidence of infectious diseases. After their ban, the new substances, which do not cause a possible resistance to pathogenic agents, are searched. One option is to use the small molecules of natural origin, particularly the primary and secondary plant metabolites. It is possible to consider the use of a new generation of cationic peptides isolated from plants or animal and bacteriocins. The use of these substances in the pig breeding is directed into the feeding stuff in a form of additive compounds, whose aim is to prevent the development of microbial infection in GIT and the area of abdomen, increasing the immunity of animals and decreasing the inflammatory processes in boar genitals. The second area is the application of these substances in the cryopreservation of boar semen and into the extenders for the short-term storage of semen prepared for AI. According to the EU recommendation, a substantially higher attention must be paid to the research of natural substances in agricultural sphere.

Balogh P., Szabó P., Pocsai K.:
INTRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT MANGALICA BREEDS’S PROLIFICACY AND REARING PERFORMANCES
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (2): 34-37

Mangalica pig has a special significance in Hungary, because as a native breed it is substantial to preserve and keep in breeding. The professional membership and coordination of the breeding is performed by the National Association of Mangalica Breeders (NAMB) since 1994. The breed has three colour varieties – blonde, swallow-bellied and red – which are independent breeds verified by the results of gene-preservation researches. The paper compares prolificacy and rearing performances of the three mangalica breeds and also the determinants influencing the examined indicators among the years 2000 and 2011 on the basis of data from NAMB and National Food Chain Safety Office (NFCSO). It was analysed partly the number of days between two litters, the frequency of litter and the age at first litter of mangalica sows and the other hand the average results of one-day old piglets and the piglets reared to 21 days of age. Mangalica breeds have lower parameters in all indicators compared to a modern pig breed (e.g. Hungarian Large White) due to the speciality of the species (e.g. longer rearing period, tolerance to climatic and breeding conditions). Some economic factors (global economic crisis, drought damage) also affected the studied performances during the examined period.

Lipenský J., Lustyková A., Frydrychová S., Rozkot M., Václavková E. :
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT EXTENDERS, DILUTION RATE AND STORAGE TIME ON BOAR SPERM PROGRESSIVE MOTILITY
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (2): 38-42

The aim of this study was to evaluated the preservation ability of three commercial extenders frequently used in the Czech Republic and evaluated the effect of dilution rate and storage time on boar sperm progressive motility. The semen was extended in a commercial boar semen extender Androhep Plus, BTS and VIP3 and was stored at a temperature 17°C up to 96 hours. Sperm motility was evaluated each day at the 1st, 3rd and 5th hour during the incubation in water bath. Sperm progressive motility was significantly decreased for all extenders with storage period (p < 0.001) and the dilution rate had the significant effect on all tested extenders. The best sperm survival ability was observed in extender Androhep Plus. In conclusion, different sperm survival ability based on used extender, dilution rate and storage time was noted during this study.

David L., Pulkrábek J., Vališ L. :
CARCASS VALUE IN DIFFERENCED GROUPS OF SLAUGHTER PIGS
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (2): 43-47

The total of 141 slaughter pigs of representative genotypes were selected also with regard to representativity in weight, sex and backfat depth. The pigs in the sample were slaughtered and the basic characteristics were measured on the carcass. The carcasses were graded with the FOM device and then dissected. The sample was first divided in two groups depending on the weight of the carcass (60-90kg and 90-120kg), second divided into gilts and barrows. The groups were compared regarding to the carcass value, especially the lean meat content. There were no significant differences between the compared groups in any of the measured characteristics.


Issue 1, Pages 1-30


Horký P.:
THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS FORMS (ORGANIC, INORGANIC - STANDARDIZED DOSE) OF SELENIUM ON THE LABORATORY VALUES OF THE EJACULATE OF BREEDING BOARS (BREED DUROC)
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (1): 1-4

The experiment was based on feeding the organic and inorganic forms of selenium and the assessment of their effects on the laboratory values of the ejaculate (total count of sperm, sperm motility, ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and per cent of pathological sperm) in breeding boars. The experiment involved 18 boars breed Duroc divided into two equal groups. The individual groups received feed mixtures with the supplement of 0.3 Se/kg of feed mixture in organic form, and 0.3 Se/kg of feed mixture in inorganic form. The experiment lasted 20 weeks. The selenium supplement significantly decreased the sperm concentration in boars supplemented by 0.3 mg Se/kg of feed mixture (P < 0.05) in inorganic form; this group of boars also had a lower total count of sperm produced (P < 0.05). Boars with an income of 0.3 mg Se/kg of feed mixture in an organic form had improved semen quality compared to inorganic forms

Šprysl M., Stupka R., Čítek J.:
REPEATABILITY AND VARIATION CAUSED BY THE OPERATOR IN PIGS
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (1): 5-8

The aim of the study was to determine the repeatability and operator variability, which estimate the backfat thicknes (S-FOM), muscle depth (M-FOM) and lean meat share (LMP) measured twice in one pig with one instrument (FOM). The observed LMP-FOM estimations was also compared with the ZP method. 180 total hybrid pigs of common genotypes, using in the Czech Republic was measured at the abbatoir. For the lean meat share prediction and its comparison the FOM and ZP equations were used. Calculation and the results comparison was performed by mathematical-statistical program SAS® Propriety Software Release 6.04. Significance of differences was tested by analysis of variance. The results showed that -there are minimal differences in the LMP estimation between FOM and ZP, - ZP method, compared to FOM, LMP estimate overstates, - considerable differences between LMP estimates of operators are caused by punctures in the wrong place, - repeatability S and M for the first and repeated injection is high, the accuracy of the estimate LMPFOM/ZP are 0.98351/0.838, - accuracy of MFOM determination is affected by operator, - repeatability accuracy of LMP estimates is for all operators practically identical.

Vrtková I., Stehlík L., Putnová L.:
RESEARCH OF VARIABILITY IN PRESTICE BLACK PIED PIG USING DINUCLEOTIDE AND TETRANUCLEOTIDE MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (1):9-14

The aim of this study was to use 10 dinucleotide and 12 tetranucleotide microsatellite markers (MS) to characterize the variability in 89 breeding boards of Prestice Black Pied Pig (PC). Mean number of alleles at dinucleotide versus tetranukleodtide MS was 7.40 - 7.55, observed heterozygosity 0.740 - 0.696 and PIC 0.691 - 0.682. We also evaluated diversity of PC and all other breeds kept in the Czech Republic (Large White – father line (LWF) and Large White – mother line (LWM), Landrace (L), Pietrain (P), Duroc (D), and Czech Meat (CM) using 10 dinucleotide MS. Total of 658 breeding boars were analyzed. Mean number of alleles per locus in all breeds was 12.9, ranging between 9 to 18 alleles. The greatest PIC was 0.691 in PC and lowest 0.506 in D. The expected and observed heterozygosity was 0.760, 0.635 resp. across all loci. Only Pietrain breed showed a significant deficit in heterozygosity (FIS; P < 0.05), which was 0.068. The analysis of population structure with using algorithm based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo method in Structure software confirms that there was little admixture between seven studied breeds, except Large White – father line and Large White – mother line.

Kluzáková E., Stupka R., Čítek J., Šprysl M., Okrouhlá M., Brzobohatý L., Vehovský K.:
THE INFLUENCE OF THE STABLE MICROCLIMATE ON THE PIG PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (1): 15-19

The study deals with the effect of the pen locations with regard to their place in the section on selected pig production parameters in the weaning pigs. 8 pens, each with 25 weaners pigs of the DanBred genotype, were tested. The body weight (BW), daily gain (DG), average daily gain (ADG), and mortality of animals at the start of the test, in the 14th, 28th, 42nd day and at the end the test, were monitored during the season during the same temperature. From the obtained results one could say, that the pen locations in the section may affect the growth intensity and mortality in pigs. Transverse pen locations, influence more significantly ADG as well as overall mortality then longitudinal pen location in the weaners section.

Vehovský K., Stupka R., Čítek J., Šprysl M., Okrouhlá M., Brzobohatý L. :
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT AND SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE CARCASS VALUE AFFECTED BY NUTRITION DURING FATTENING IN PIGS
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (1): 20-23

The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between selected indicators of the carcass value and intramuscular fat (IMF) content at the different diet in pigs. The difference was in the CFM enrichment about corn, respectively lineseed as a source of polyenic fatty acids (PUFA). Experiment show no influence of nutrition on the IMT share in the carcass. Under the influence of lineseed diet, the groups of PUFA, n-3 PUFA, PUFA:SFA ratio (saturated fatty acids) significantly (P?0.01) increased. The n-6:n-3 ratio of PUFA and the sum of mono-fatty acid (MUFA), however, was simultaneously reduced. Changes in the carcass value parameters were insignificant. The results of correlation analysis between the IMF share and carcass value characteristics showed a positive correlation between the IMF share backfat thickness (r=0.532; P?0.01), SFA (r=0.48733; P?0.01). The negative correlation between the IMF share and the lean meat share (r=-0.55095, P?0.01), the main meat parts share (r=-0.45778, P?0.05), groups of PUFA fatty acids (r=-0.403, P?0.05), PUFA n-6 (r=-0.80555, P?0.01), PUFA:SFA ratio (r=-0.43725, P?0.05) and n-6:n-3 (r=-0.4224, P?0.05) were detected simultaneously.

Frydrychová S., Lustyková A., Václavková E., Lipenský J., Rozkot M.:
EFFECT OF EXTENDER ON ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN BOAR SEMEN DURING PRESERVATION
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (1):24-25

The objective of this study was carried out to determine the influence of extenders on AST activity during preservation of boar semen. A total of 37 ejaculates were used for this study. The semen was diluted in dilution ratio 1+8 in extenders Androhep (A), Safecell Plus (SCP) and SUS and was stored at a temperature of 17°C. AST activity was evaluated at 24h, 96h, 168h and 240h after semen dilution and 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h after thawing. The total mean value of the AST activity was 72.69, 89.52, 84.40 mU/109 spermatozoa in A, SCP and SUS, respectively. There were found significant differences between A and SCP extender (P<0.05). Significant differences in the AST activity where noted at 96h vs. 168h and 240h storage time in SCP (P<0.05). The gradual increased the AST activity was observed at all extenders during storage time where total the highest difference was after 96h vs. 168h (P<0.05). The mean values of the AST activity after thawing were 128.27 mU/109 in A, 141.99 mU/109 in SCP and 118.44 mU/109 in SUS. Significant differences in the AST activity where noted SCP and SUS extender (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study showed gradual increase in the AST activity indicating the membrane damage of spermatozoa during storage time. The effect of extenders on the activity of AST was significant during storage time after dilution and after thawing.

Bučko O., Hellová D., Debrecéni O., Haščík P.:
ANALYSIS OF PORK QUALITY OF PIGS MANGALITZA BREED FATTENED TRADITIONAL FARMING SYSTEM COMPARED TO PIGS OF LARGE WHITE BREED FATTENED CONVENTIONAL WAY OF FARMING
Research in Pig Breeding, 7, 2013 (1): 26-30

The aim of our experiment was to determine and analyze parameters of physical and technological quality and chemical composition of pork meat in indigenous breed reared in traditional farming system in comparison with improved breed reared in conventional farming method. The experiment was realized at two different locations. The group of pigs reared in conventional rearing system were fattened in the testing conditions of Experimental Center for Livestock. There were 10 Large White Breed pigs used in this group which were housed and fattened in standard way. The group of pigs that were reared in alternative farming system were fattened at the University Farm Žirany. There were 20 Mangalitza Breed pigs used in this group which were housed in group pens on solid floor with straw bedding and access to free range. Based on our results, we can state statistically significant differences with value P ?0.001 in the case of indicators electrical conductivity measured after 45 minutes [mS/cm-1] and also electrical conductivity measured after 24 hours [mS/cm-1], shear force [kg. cm-1], total water [ % ], total protein [ % ], intramuscular fat[ % ] , saturated fatty acid [g.100g-1 FAME], monounsaturated fatty acids [g.100g-1 FAME], polyunsaturated fatty acids [g.100g-1 FAME] and omega 6 fatty acids [g.100g-1 FAME] in musculus longissimus thoracis. We observed statistically significant differences with value P ?0.01 in indicators CIE L*[ g.100g-1] and CIE a* [ g.100g-1] in musculus longissimus thoracis. We did not detected any statistically significant differences between the groups in other indicators of pork quality.


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Research in Pig Breeding

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