Volume 4 (2010) | Issue 1 | Issue 2 |

Issue 2, Pages 1-47


Dvořáková V., Stupka R., Šprysl M., Čítek J., Okrouhlá M., Kluzáková E., Kratochvílová K.:
THE EFECT OF POLYMORPHISM SER638ARG/PVUII IN THE CALPASTATIN (CAST) GENE AND THE EFECT OF CAUSE MUTATION IN RYR1 GENE ON THE QUALITATIVE TRAITS OF MEAT IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 1-4

This study was concerned of the polymorphism Ser638Arg/PvuII in the calpastatin (CAST) and of the RYR1 genes on selected qualitative traits. The investigation included 179 hybrids and one pure animal [(PNxLWs)x(LxLWD), (DxLWs)x (LxLWD), LW, Lx LWD, Pnsx(LxLWD)]. The frequency of the genotypes at the CAST/Ser638Arg/PvuII loci was: A/A 45, A/C 103, C/C 34. The frequency of genotype of the causal mutation RYR1 was: 170 N/N and 12 N/n. Statistic differences between the Ser638/Arg/PvuII polymorphism of CAST gene on qualitative characteristics of pork meat on the electric conductivity of MLLT (p < 0.001) and on the pH (p < 0.0005) were detected. A significant differences were found between causal mutation of the RYR1 gene on pH (p < 0.006), the electric conductivity in the MLLT (p < 0.0001) and the electric conductivity in the ham (p < 0.008). A interactions between Ser638Arg/PvuII polymorphism of the CAST gene and causal mutations of the RYR1 gene and the electric conductivity of MLLT (p < 0.001) as well as pH (p < 0.005) were demonstrated.


Loučka R.:
STABILITY OF HIGH MOISTURE MAIZE GRAIN ENSILED WITH AND WITHOUT CHEMICAL ADDITIVES
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 5-8

The goal of the work was to determine the influence of chemical preservation on fermentation indicators, nutritional value and aerobic stability of silage of maize grain with about 66.5% of the dry matter. The coarsely ground maize grain was ensiled in glass laboratory vessels. After the end of fermentation the vessels were opened, a part of the mass was subject to chemical analyses and a part was stored in special boxes isolated from surrounding environment by a 10 cm layer of polystyrene. After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours the silages were passed to chemical analyses. The temperatures were measured continuous also after 168 hours, i.e. the seventh day after the start of ensilaging. The control silage of wet maize grain without preservative was stable for about 48 hours, than it started decaying quickly (the temperature rose from 19°C to 30.5° C, pH from 5.0 to 5.9, acidity of water extract dropped from 774 to 471 g/kg). The silages preserved by chemical preparations in doses of 3 and 6 litres per ton of wet grain were stable in air for the whole 7 days of observation. The fodder is suitable also for nutrition of pigs.


Lustyková A., Frydrychová S., Lipenský J., Čerovský J., Rozkot M.:
EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM COMMERCIAL EXTENDERS FOR LIQUID STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 9-12

The objective of this study was to compare preservation ability of five long-term commercial semen extenders by means of spermatozoa long-term thermo-resistance survival test. Ejaculates from 21 fertile boars were collected by hand method. Semen gel free volume, motility, viability, sperm concentration, total morphologically abnormal spermatozoa and total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate were determined. The samples of diluted sperm in a semen-dilution rate of 1+4 in Androhep (A), Androstar (AS), Androstar plus (AS+), LD and M III were stored at a temperature 17°C up to 96 h. The test was performed on 3 ml samples kept at 38°C in water bath each day and motility of spermatozoa was evaluated at the 1st, 3rd and 5th hour during the incubation. The survival rate significantly decreased parallelly with the storage length in all the tested extenders. The total mean values sperm motility was 39.66 %, 30.77 %, 28.55 %, 28.67 % and 24.50 %, respectively, in A, AS, AS+, M III and LD. The total mean value motility observed of Androhep was significantly (P<0.001) higher than of the others extenders. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that Androhep was a better extender than Androstar, M III, Androstar plus and LD in terms of survival rate of boar spermatozoa for long-term liquid preservation.


Pulkrábek J., David L., Vítek M., Vališ L.:
PIG CARCASS PRESENTATION WITH FLARE FAT IN CZECH REPUBLIC
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 13-16

The price of pig carcasses is determined on the basis of lean meat content and the weight of the carcass presented according to the EU reference method. To be able to apply an alternative carcass presentation with flare fat remaining in the carcass, the corrective factor adjusting the carcass weight for EU reference carcass presentation has been developed. The use of such a factor is necessary for the calculation of weekly prices. Average carcass weight including flare fat (92.90 ± 0.418 kg) and flare fat weight alone (1.93 ± 0.022 kg) were determined in a total of 761 pigs. The average lean meat content was 55.70 ± 0.140 %. To report pig carcass prices calculated on a uniform weight basis obtained using the EU reference presentation (y), the weight of carcass including flare fat (x1) is corrected using the equation y=1.65651+0.96139x1.


Sládek L., Mikule V., Čechová M., Hadaš Z., Chládek G.:
AN INFLUENCE OF SLAUGHTER WEIGHT ON COMMERCIAL DESIGNATION OF CARCASS HYBRID PIGS (CLW x CL) x (D x BL) ACCORDING TO SEUROP SYSTEM
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 17-21

The aim of the test was to evaluate an influence of slaughter weight on commercial designation of carcass hybrid pigs (CLW x CL) x (D x BL) according to SEUROP system on a base of determined portion of lean meat in carcass modified pigs´ body. From all slaughtered animals the highest number (27.1%) had the average slaughter weight 105.5 kg in weight interval 100 – 109.9 kg. Values of back fat thickness had increasing tendency with growing slaughter weight contrary to lean meat portion which showed linear declining tendency. The lowest value (9.39 mm) of back fat thickness was determined in weight group under 80 kg and the highest value (16.86) in weight group under 130 kg. The highest number of slaughtered animals (62.1%) was designated in commercial class E which corresponds with percentage of lean meat in range 55.0 – 59.9 (average value was 57.65%). In class U there was 20.9% of animals. Really positive findings it was the fact that only 3 pigs were designated in class O and no animals were designated in the worst class P. According to sex in gilts there were more animals in the best classes S and E in comparison with hogs. 25% of gilts were classified as class S, in hogs it was only 9%. In class E there was 69% of gilts in comparison with hogs – 57%.


Smital J., Wolf J.:
ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR BOAR SEMEN TRAITS
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 22-25

An animal model was developed for the genetic evaluation of semen traits of pig dam and sire breeds. Fixed effects in the animal model were: month of collection, age of the boar at collection, interval between subsequent collections, combined effect of AI centre and year and breed or crossbred combination. The permanent environmental effect of the boar and the additive genetic effect of the boar were treated as random effects. The pedigree was traced back to approximately the year 1985. Data were from all AI centres in the Czech Republic; the ejaculates were collected from 2000 through 2007 and were both from dam breeds (Czech Large White and Czech Landrace) and sire breeds (Duroc, sire line of Large White, Piétrain and single crosses between these breeds). Traits considered per ejaculate were semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, percentage of abnormal sperm, total number of sperm, and number of functional sperm. Heritabilities for semen traits and genetic correlations between them were estimated. Semen volume showed the highest heritability (near 0.30) and the heritabilities for the remaining traits were in the range from 0.10 to 0.20. High negative genetic correlations were observed between semen volume and sperm concentration and between motility and percentage of abnormal sperm.


Václavková E.:
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FAT SOURCES IN PIG DIET ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF MUSCLE TISSUE
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 26-29

The aim of the study was to evaluated the content of selected fatty acids in muscle tissue of pigs fed with feed mixtures with different sources of fat. Forty crossbred gilts were divided into four groups and fed with control diet (C) or diet containing sunflower (S), linseed (L) or CLA. The highest content (P<0.001) of linoleic acid was found in CLA and S group, the highest amount of alpha-linolenic acid was measured in L group. The content of arachidonic acid and EPA was also affected (P<0.001) by the type of feeding mixture. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was also significantly different in control and experimental groups. Similarly, the polyunsaturated fatty acids proportion was affected (P<0.01 – 0.001) by the diet. The most favourable n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was found in L group.


Kučera J., Daněk P., Podhorná I., Seifert J., Velebný V., Klein P.:
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EXCISIONAL SKIN WOUND HEALING MODEL IN MINIPIG
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 30-36

For the physiological and structural similarities between pig and human skin, the pigs represent irreplaceable in vivo models of wound healing. Nevertheless, success of the wound healing experiment is also subject to several technical details such as anaesthesia, surgical technique, appropriate housing and animal care during experiments, or sufficient fixation of wound dressing which could minimize its damage or even its undesirable removal followed by wound contusion and contamination. Present contribution describes the porcine model of full-thickness excisional wounds which allows testing of wound dressings under standardized conditions.


Vališ L., Vítek M., David L., Pulkrábek J.:
THE TISSUE COMPOSITION OF BELLY WITH BONES AS AFFECTED BY CARCASS WEIGHT OF GILTS AND BARROWS
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 37-41

A total of 90 pig carcasses were analysed with the aim to determine the effects of gender and carcass weight on the tissue composition of belly with bones. The analysed carcasses represented the current pig production in the CR with respect to an equal gender ratio and the most frequently used hybrid combinations. While the carcass weight was similar between genders, gilts had a higher carcass lean meat content compared to barrows (56.90 ± 0.580 % and 55.58 ± 0.616 %, respectively). Also, the lean meat content in the belly with bones was higher in gilts than in barrows by 2.15 percent points (59.47 and 57.32 %, respectively). On the contrary, the content of intermuscular fat was significantly higher in barrows compared to gilts (16.97 ± 0.638 and 14.89 ± 0.571 %, respectively). The contents of remaining tissues, i.e. skin including subcutaneous fat and bones was similar between genders. Different tissue growth dynamics was observed between genders when assessing the effect of carcass weight on belly with bones composition. The carcasses were grouped according to weight (up to 80 kg, 80 – 100 kg, above 100 kg). In gilts, the composition of belly with bones was similar in the weight groups up to 80 kg and 80 – 100 kg (lean contents 60.96 ± 1.589 % and 61.38 ± 0.878 %, respectively), while the lean content was significantly lower in the group above 100 kg of carcass weight (56.21 ± 1.280 %). In contrast, belly composition of barrows was deteriorated already in the weight group 80 – 100 kg. The lean meat contents in the three weight groups of barrows were 61.47, 58.45 and 52.27 %, respectively.


Holendová K., Čechová M.:
EFFECT OF PRODUCTION PARAMETERS ON REPRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF CZECH LARGE WHITE SOWS
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (2): 42-47

The effect of production traits measured in the performance test on reproductive efficiency was analysed in 156 Czech large White gilts. The date of birth, average daily gain from the birth to the end of the performance test, lean meat percentage, backfat thickness, date of farrowing, number of piglets born, born alive and weaned, farrowing interval were monitored for every gilt. The reasons for culling were also monitored. The average daily weight gain from birth to the end of performance test was 625,33 ± 53,68 g and lean meat percentage in the performance test was 61,06 ± 1,69 %. The gilts achieved the average age at the first mating 269,97 ± 38,33 days and the average live weight 149,35 ± 18,51 kg. The backfat thickness significantly (P<0,05) affected the age of gilts at the first mating and the first farrowing. The tendency for decreasing number of piglets born, born alive and weaned with increasing backfat thickness (P>0,05). The highest number of piglets was monitored in gilts with 0,69 – 0,85 cm of backfat. The average number of litters was 4,65 ± 3,27. This parameter was not significantly affected by backfat thickness. The highest number of piglets born (15,67 ± 3,09) was found in the twelfth parity. The most frequent reasons for culling the gilts from the herd were the disorders of legs (27,56 %), reproduction (16,03 %) and fertility disorders (12,82 %). The legs disorders were reason for culling 10,25 % of animals after the first parity.


Issue 1, Pages 1-40


Čechová M., Bečková R., Hadaš Z., Václavková E., Rychetská M.:
EFFECT OF CLA AND SUNFLOWER OIL IN PIG DIET ON CARCASS VALUE TRAITS AND MEAT QUALITY
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (1): 1-4

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and sunflower oil addition to pig diet on carcass value traits and meat quality. Three feed mixtures were used in the experiment – feed mixture with 2 % of CLA (CLA), feed mixture with 2 % of sunflower oil (S) and control (C) group. The weight of carcass body, % of lean meat, pH1, pH24 and drip loss were monitored in control and experimental groups. Significant difference (P<0.05) in carcass body weight was found between S (96.60 ± 0.98 kg) and C group (91.58 ± 1.25 kg). Lean meat percentage was not statistically different among groups (P>0.05). The results from meat quality analyses showed only minimal differences in pH1 value among groups (P>0.05). However, there was significantly (P<0.05, P<0.001) lower pH24 value in S group (5.64 ± 0.01) compared to CLA (5.75 ± 0.02) and C (5.78 ± 0.03) group. The effect of gender on monitored carcass value traits and meat quality traits was significant only for lean meat percentage.


Čítek J., Šprysl M., Stupka R., Kratochvílová H., Okrouhlá M., Dohnálek J.:
USE OF IMAGE ANALYSIS TO ESTIMATE THE COMPOSITION OF PIG CARCASES
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (1): 5-9

Pig producers are trying to accommodate the processors and consumers for lean meat carcasses with a high proportion of valuable meat parts. Selection programs, leading to the breeding of pigs with high lean meat must include objective indicators characterizing as precisely as possible the quality of the carcasses. Seems promising as the use of dimensions acquired image analysis. The paper examined the relationship of linear and areal dimensions obtained with the VIA method selected indicators of carcass value. Were selected ten dimensions to easily found on carcass body. 4 sizes were monitored thickness of fat cover, 2 sizes of thickness of muscle and 2 thickness linear dimensions of the carcass middle and 2 horizontal dimensions that were measured in 40 pig carcasses. Dimensions were found with a sufficiently high correlation coefficient. These dimensions could be used for constructing the regression equations used to estimate the parameters of carcass value. Would appear more appropriate height dimensions fat cover (R2 - backfat thickness measured in the 5th thoracic vertebra, R3 - backfat thickness measured over the 12th thoracic vertebra and the R10 - the fat area measured from the 10th thoracic vertebra after 1 cross vertebra) compared dimensions characterizing the thickness of the muscle.


Dvořáková V., Stupka R., Šprysl M., Čítek J., Kluzáková E., Okrouhlá M., Kratochvílová H.:
THE EVALUATION OF THE MELANOCORTIN-4 RECEPTOR OF THE RIANODINE-1 RECEPTOR AND THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THIS GENES ON CARCASS TRAIT IN PIGS
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (1): 10-14

The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays an important role in the control of mammalian energy homeostasis. In this context, many researches noted that a variant of the candidate gene MC4R may explain the significant variation in backfat thickness, growth rate, and feed intake in commercial pig hybrids. The aim of this study was demonstrated the effect mutation AF087937:c.746G>A in the MC4R gene, the effect causal mutation C1843T in the RYR1 gene and the interaction between these genes. In this study was found the significant influence of allele G in the MC4R gene and of allele n in the RYR1 gene on lean meat. Moreover, we did not find the interaction between these on killing out percentage. Also we assume, that allele G have influence on higher lean meat. In the contrary, we did not find an evidential influence of c.746G>A in the MC4R gene on fatness. We detected the significant influence only on backfat thickness and we did not find any trend of MC4R gene on fatness. Also we assume, that this effect influenced of the RYR1 gene.


Kluzáková E., Dvořáková V., Stupka R., Šprysl M., Čítek J., Okrouhlá M.:
FATTY ACID-BINDING PROTEIN (FABP3) POLYMORPHISM AND ITS ASSOCIATION STUDY IN PNX(CLWXCL) PIGS
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (1): 15-18

H-FABP (heart fatty acid-binding protein), a member of FABP family, palys an essentioal role in long-chain fatty acid uptake and metabolic homeostatis. Previous studies indicated that polymorphism in H-FABP was significantly associated on the intramuscular fat content and on average daily gain in pig. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of H-FABP (FABP3) genotypes et HaeIII site on cacrass traits. The associations between FABP3 gene polymorphism and fatness traits were tested in (ČBUxČL)xPN. It was found the oposite effect this SNP, than in the previous studies. It was detected the effect of allele D on higher fatness and the effect of allele d on higher lean meat. The obtained results suggest that the FABP3 gene is linked with an unknown gene.


Kratochvílová H., Stupka R., Čítek J., Šprysl M., Dvořáková V., Okrouhlá M.:
FREQUENCY OF GENES GENOTYPES MYOG, MYF6, MYOD1 IN SELECTED PIG POPULATIONS
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (1): 19-21

This study is concerned with the determination frequencies of alleles and proportion of genotypes in the MYOG, MYF6 and MYOD1 genes. 22 pigs of LWD, 24 pigs of LWDxL, 164 pigs of PNx(LWDxL), 70 pigs of (LWSxD)x(LWDxL) and 70 pigs of (LWSxPN)x(LWDxL) was assessed. The allele A was the most detected in the MYOG gene in all groups of animals as well as the MYOD1 gene except hybrid combination LWDxL genotype. The AB genotype of MYOG gene was most represented in the LWD pigs and LWDxL combination. The AA genotype was the most represented for the remaining hybrid combinations. The BB genotype in the MYF6 gene had the highest proportion in the LWD and also hybrid LWDxL pigs. The AB genotype was the most prominent of the other hybrid combinations. This genotype was the most detected in the all groups except (LWSxPN)x(LWDxL).


Okrouhlá M., Stupka R., Čítek J., Šprysl M.:
THE EFFECT OF DIETARY E VITAMIN ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND LIPID OXIDATIVE STABILITY IN PIGS: A REVIEW
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (1): 22-25

The pork meat is the most frequently consumed meat in the Czech Republic. The quality of pork meat mainly depends on the genotype, age, slaughter weight and nutrition in pigs. Lipid oxidation in meat is an important responsible factor for quality losses including flavour, texture, nutritive value and colour. Dietary vitamin E has positive effect on oxidative stability of fresh and stored meat and products.


Smital J.:
COMPARISON OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIATIONS IN BOAR SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF SIX BREEDS AND THEIR CROSSBREDS OVER AN EIGHT-YEAR PERIOD
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (1): 26-32

The aim of this study was to analyze environmental variations of the AI boar sperm output adjusted for other effects (breedstation, age of boar, interval between two collections and individuality of boar). A total of 303,748 records of semen collections were utilised to estimate statistics of semen traits of 3,392 boars belonging to the following groups of breeds: dam breeds Czech Large White (LWCZ), Landrace (L), sire breeds Czech Meat Pig (CM), Duroc (D), Large White (LW), Pietrain (P) and crossbreds (D×H; D×LW; D×P; CM×P; H×P and LW×P). The evaluation was based on semen volume, percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, total number of spermatozoa and index of sperm efficiency. The linear model used for statistical analysis. In the monitored period the increasing trend of quantity of spermatozoa and in contrast decreasing trend of quality of spermatozoa were displayed in boars of dam breeds. The positive trends of quantity and quality of spermatozoa were recorded in boars of sire breeds. In contrast the decreasing trend of quantity and quality of spermatozoa was recorded in crossbreds. The seasonal variation displayed lower values of the semen volume and the number of spermatozoa in summer and higher values in autumn and winter.


Stupka R., Čítek J., Šprysl M., Kratochvílová H., Dvořáková V.:
THE INFLUENCE OF THE ORGANIC SELENIUM ON CHOOSED PARAMETERS OF CARCASS VALUE IN HYBRID PIGS
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (1): 33-36

The objective of this work was to demonstrate the influence of the organic selenium adittion on the carcass value in hybrid pigs. For this purpose 69 hybrid pigs of (LWSxL) x (LWDxL) genotype was used. The feeding of the experimantal animal group (n = 26 heads) was realized by using the common feeding mixture with addition 1 mg Se per 1 kg of the feeding mixture (commercial preparation Sel-plex). The control animal group (n = 43 heads) was fed without any selenium addition. On the basis of the results one could draw that selenium addition in the feeding mixture for growing pigs positively influences the qualitative characteres, contrary doesn´t influences the quantitative characteres of the carcasse value.


Šprysl M., Čítek J., Stupka R.:
MONITORING OF THE REPRODUCTION PERFORMANCE IN HYBRID PIGS BY HELP OF FIELD TESTS
Research in Pig Breeding, 4, 2010 (1): 37-40

The objective of this work was to verify the reproduction performance of seventh crossbred combinations in a large-scale operation using a field test. For them, reproduction performance was assessed in 866 litters. In order to examine more precisely the phenotypic values of reproduction performance of the genotypes used and the effects affecting this performance, linear models with fixed effects were used. On the basis of the results one could draw that in the large scale production operations, manifestation of genetic factors in reproductive performance of pigs is minimum the effect of the environment is dominant. It was also confirmed that the reproduction performance is affected by genetic effects, which allows the production sphere to take advantage of the genetic progress achieved in the breeding sphere. The tests have confirmed a high variability of environment among individual farms which has been reflected in reproduction performance of the genotypes observed. Finally the field tests can show for the management whether there are reserves for improvement of husbandry techniques and housing conditions and whether a genetic potential of the animals is manifested.


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Research in Pig Breeding

Volume 10 (2016)
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