Volume 3 (2009) | Issue 1 | Issue 2 |

Issue 2, Pages 1-71

Eidelpesová L., Matoušek V., Kernerová N.:
Comparison of hybrid combination of pigs with a view to meat quality
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 1-3

This study evaluates carcass composition of three final hybrids of pigs and their meat quality. In 90 hybrids these traits were determined: live weight, lean meat proportion, percentual rate of main meat parts and ham. Next, the meat quality traits were evaluated (pH, lightness, drip loss, intramuscular fat content and texture). The highest lean meat proportion and percentual rate of main meat parts and ham was determined at A combination.

Jankowiak H., Kapelański W., Kwiatkowska B.E., Biegniewska M., Cebulska A.:
Carcass and meat quality of złotnicka spotted pigs in comparison to polish large white x polish landrace crossbred pigs
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 4-6

The experiment was carried out on 32 purebred Złotnicka Spotted pigs and 20 crossbreds Polish Large White x Polish Landrace. Rearing and feeding were similar for all animals. Złotnicka Spotted fatteners were slaughtered at about 107 kg live body weight however crossbred pigs at about 119 kg live body weight according to the meat industry standards. Meat physico-chemical traits were determined in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. The determined meat characteristics covered the pH1 and pHu records, visual assessment of colour and exudation on fresh meat samples, drip loss, colorimeter Minolta measurements of lightness (L), a*, b* values and tenderness. Significance of differences (Duncan’s test) between groups was identified using STATISTICA 8.0 PL packet. Złotnicka Spotted pigs showed lower body weight at slaughter and cold carcass weight (107.09 kg and 77.28 kg) than pigs from F1 group (119.80 kg and 89.93 kg); P?0.01. Carcass fatness as determined by mean backfat thicknes was smaller in crossbred pigs (2.01 cm) than in purebred fatteners (2.75 cm); P?0.01. Złotnicka Spotted pig’s meat showed a lower drip loss (P?0.01), darker and more desirable colour (P?0.01). Values of the all analysed traits were within ranges characterizing good meat quality of Złotnicka Spotted pigs.

Kosová M., Dolejš J., Toufar O., Knížek J., Adamec T.:
Analysis of dust fractiones at piggery
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 7-10

During 2008 the concentrations of volatile dust particles in the form of fractions sized up to 10 sm (PM10) and up to 2.5 sm (PM2.5) were measured in the pig farm building with the nominal capacity of 180 pigs placed in stalls with grids. It followed from the multilinear model analysis that PM2.5 fraction was the most impacted with the conditions under survey both inside and outside the building (determination coefficient r2 = 0.98), the PM10 fraction (r2=0.55) was less affected. The highest correlation achieved inside the building was that between the concentration of the PM10 fraction and the precipitation (r = +0.533), between the PM2.5 fraction and the air pressure (r = -0.470). In terms of immissions, it was between the PM10 fraction and the precipitation (r = +0,538) and the PM2.5 fraction and the relative air humidity (r = +0.456).

Kosová M., Dolejš J., Toufar O., Knížek J., Adamec T.:
Measuring of dust at pig farm
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 11-15

During 2008 the concentrations of volatile dust particles in the form of fractions sized up to 10 sm (PM10) and up to 2.5 sm (PM2.5) were measured in the pig farm building with the nominal capacity of 180 pigs placed in stalls with grids. The abovementioned fractions were measured using the gravimetric method and on-line measurement in 24-hour cycles. Standard and other micro- and macroclimate elements were being recorded at the same time. The mean concentration inside the stable was 502.8 for fraction PM10 and 121.8 sg.m-3, around the stable (= immission) it was 410 and 75.1 sg.m-3. The indicated values, especially the immission values, were subject to a rather significant fluctuation of 19.2 – 58.4%. The concentration consisted of PM10 immissions of 81.5% and 61.7% respectively.

Martecikova S., Rybar R., Hulinska P., Pavlik A., Jeseta M., Machatkova M.:
Changes in functional parameters of cryopreserved boar spermatozoa capacitated in vitro
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 16-21

The boar spermatozoa are extremely susceptible to freezing-thawing process and some damages can occur after their cryopreservation. The good functional state of cryopreserved and capacitated spermatozoa is crucial for standard in vitro fertilization and porcine embryo production. The aim of this study was to assess functional status of spermatozoa after cryopreservation, separation and capacitation to characterize the influence of these procedures on spermatozoa functional parameters. The ejaculates of 7 boars were frozen-thawed, motile spermatozoa were separated on Percoll-gradient and capacitated in Tris-buffered medium with 1mM caffeine at 39 oC in atmosphere of 5 % CO2 for 3 hours. Motility, viability and chromatine integrity of spermatozoa were evaluated by phase contrast, Annexin V-FICT apoptosis detection kit and Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) respectively. Data were analysed for high cryotolerant- (HCT-) boars (n = 4) and low cryotolerant- (LCT-) boars (n = 3) that were classified preliminary according to motility, viability and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa after semen thawing (Martečíková et al., 2009). There were no differences in motility, viability or chromatin integrity between spermatozoa of both boar groups before semen freezing but, the significantly (P < 0.05) higher motility and viability rates were found for spermatozoa of HCT- boars compared with those of LCT-boars after thawing. In HCT-boars, mean proportions of motile and viable spermatozoa decreased gradually during cryopreservation, separation and capacitation. The decrease in motility and viability of spermatozoa after thawing (from 78.8 ± 2.1 to 46.3 ± 7.8 % and from 85.3 ± 2.1 to 43.0 ± 7.3 % respectively) and capacitation (from 51.8 ± 5.5 to 36.8 ± 7.4 % and from 35.0 ± 3.7 to 29.9 ± 4.6 % respectively) was significant (P < 0.05). In LCT-boars, mean proportions of motile and viable spermatozoa decreased after thawing, (from 81.7 ± 5.7 to 16.7 ± 6.8 % and from 82.9 ± 2.1 to 39.1 ± 2.9 %), increased after separation (to 50.0 ± 6.3 % and 51.8 ± 5.5 %) and decreased again after capacitation (to 44.2 ± 3.7 % and 37.4 ± 9.0 % respectively). The all differences were significant (P < 0.05). In both boar groups mean percentages of spermatozoa with intact DNA did not changed during the whole evaluated period. In conclusion, the cryotolerance of spermatozoa in boars cannot be predicted before cryopreservation of their semen. Separation of motile spermatozoa on a Percoll- gradient was more effective for the low- cryotolerant compared with the highcryotolerant boars. The DNA of spermatozoa was highly stabile during cryopreservation, separation and capacitation by caffeine.

Wähner M., Brüssow K.-P.:
Biological potential of fecundity of sows
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 22-27

The profitability of pig production considerably depends on the number of born alive and fostered piglets. The development regarding the number of piglets born for German Landrace (DL), Large White (DE) and Pietrain (PI) in Germany during 1980 – 2006 is limited (DL: 10,4 – 11,0; DE: 11,0 – 11,0; PI: 10,2 – 10,0). Comparing international data, variations between 10.2 to 13.6 piglets born alive are observed. Reproductive performance in sows is mainly determined by (1) the number of ovulated follicles and fertilized oocytes, (2) the divvy of surviving embryos and fetuses, and (3) the morphological and functional performance of the uterus to support fetal development up to birth. The question whether the ovary and/or uterus are limiting factors can be answered as followed. The pool of ovarian follicles is not the limiting one, although only about 0.5 % of oocytes present in the ovary are ovulated during the sows lifetime. Selection for ovulation rate increases the number of ovulating follicles, but not of piglets born alive. Limiting is the uterine capacity. This physical, biochemical and morphological limitation of the uterus include space, nutrients, gas exchange and surface of the placenta. Although a relationship exists between uterine dimension and the number of fetuses/piglets, uterine length alone is not a prerequisite of higher uterine capacity. Placental efficiency (indicating how much gram fetus is supported by one gram placenta) and the degree of placental blood supply appear to be essentially for litter size. At present, the (really) assumed potential of fecundity is 15.0 piglets born alive, 2.4 litters/year, <10 % losses and 32.5 piglets per sow/year (compared to current data of 11.1, 2.26, 13.8 and 21.5; respectively).

Frydrychová S. , Lustyková A. , Čeřovský J., Rozkot M.:
Assessment of the plasma membrane resistance of boar spermatozoa with using short hypoosmotic swelling test
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 28-30

The objective of this study was to assess the sperm membrane resistance in diluted boar semen with using short hypoosmotic swelling test (sHOS-test). sHOS-test evaluates the functional integrity of the spermatozoa plasma membrane, especially of the tail. sHOS-test involves incubation of spermatozoa in hypoosmotic solution 75 mOsm/l for 5 min. Eosin-nigrosine staining test was used with sHOS-test. Ejaculates from 21 fertile hybrid AI boars were collected by the gloved hand method. In the fresh boar semen were evaluated these parameters: semen volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration, morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, percentage of live sperm and sHOS-test. The boar semen was diluted in a semendilution rate of 1 + 4 in Androhep, Androstar, Androstar plus, MIII, LD and was stored at a temperature 17°C up to 96h. Samples of semen-dilution were kept at 38°C in water bath and resistance of spermatozoa was evaluated with sHOS-test before and after 1h incubation in water bath each day. The results of sHOS-test were included into four categories: swollen tail+negative eosin, nonswollen tail+negative eosin, swollen tail+positive eosin, nonswollen tail+positive eosin. A statistically significantly decrease were observed in categories swollen tail+negative eosin and nonswollen tail+negative eosin in all used extenders after 1h incubation spermatozoa in water bath (P< 0.05). This tendency also was recorded with the storage time. On the other hand category nonswollen tail+positive eosin had significantly increase after 1h incubation (P< 0.001). A statistically significantly decrease were found in category nonswollen tail+ negative eosin only in extender Androstar, Androstar plus after 72h storage time (P< 0.05). The results of this study lead to the conclusion that incubation of boar sperm during 1h, storage time and extenders participate in significantly decrease of spermatozoa membranes resistance (P< 0.05). The best resistance of sperm membrane was in extender Androhep and followed Androstar, Androstar plus, MIII and LD in terms of incubation and storage time.

Mareš, P., Křížová, Š., Zeman, L., Večerek, M.:
The usage of secondary products of spice industry in pig nutrition
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 31-35

The usage of secondary products of spice industry was evaluated in frame of this work. These substrates can be used in animal nutrition to take benefits from plant secondary metabolites content. The work was involved in different types of byproducts from allspice (Pimenta dioica), coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and cumin (Carum carvi). The work follows the paper about influencing of nutrients digestibility by these feed additives (Mareš et al., 2008) where any negative effect was not found. This study is concerning with growth experiment on piglets. By-products were included into experimental feed mixtures on level 0.5 %. Experiment duration was 28 days after weaning and 152 animals entry the trial after seven days of preparing period. The results show the improving of growth intensity in group with coriander spent (10 %) as well as in group with spent of allspice (4 %). The experimental treatments influenced as well the daily feed intake of animals.

Václavková E., Bečková R.:
Carcass value and meat fatty acid composition of fattening gilts and barrows
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 36-39

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of gender on carcass value and fatty acid composition in meat of fattening pigs. Twenty pigs (gilts and barrows) were included in the experiment and fed ad-libitum with common feed mixture. Animals were slaughtered at 115 kg of body weight. Higher average daily gain was found in barrows (952.38 ± 191.78 g) compared to gilts (881.48 ± 131.57 g), higher lean meat content was measured in gilts (P<0.01). Fatty acid content was determined by gas chromatography method. Only ?-linolenic acid content (Figure 1) was significantly (P<0.05) different in barrows (0.55 ± 0.07 g/100 g) compared to gilts (0.80 ± 0.24). Barrows also had significantly (P< 0.05) lower content of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.90 ± 0.10) than gilts (1.18 ± 0.26). From the results it is evident that gender is lesser important factor influencing the composition of fat and that a dietary treatment is necessary to influence fatty acid content in meat.

Urbánková L., Vejnar J.:
The effect of pmsg dose on corpora lutea and embryo numbers in gilts
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 40-43

Superovulation in donors is an important factor influencing ovulation rate and embryo recovery. Crossbreed pubertal gilts (n=376) treated from year 2005 to 2009 were used as embryo donors. Experiment was evaluated in two parts: In the first part (I) gilts were divided into two groups with different synchronization schedules. In the first group (R+) 265 gilts were treated with Regumate Porcine (JANSSEN). In the second group (R-) were gilts (n=111) without Regumate diet. The number of ovulations was higher in R+ group (15.1 ± 9.3) compared to R- group (14.9 ± 9.3). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between both groups. The number of recovered embryos in R+ group (8.75 ± 8.06) and R- group (8.81 ± 6.63) did not significantly differ (p>0.05) between groups. In the second part of experiment (II) gilts were divided into four groups with different superovlulation schedules regardless Regumate treatment. Gilts were synchronized and superovulated by intramuscular injection dose from 400 to 600 i.u. of PMSG - group A (n= 21), dose from 650 to 750 i.u. of PMSG - group B (n= 61), dose from 800 to 850 i.u. PMSG - group C (n= 189) and dose from 900 to 1000 i.u. of PMSG - group D (n= 104) followed 500 i.u. of HCG 72 hours later (both groups). There were significant differences in the number of corpora lutea between groups A-B (p<0.05), groups A-D (p<0.05), groups B-C (p<0.05) and groups C-D (p<0.05). The number of embryos was 9.9 ± 7.4 (group A), 6.1 ± 5.8 (group B), 8.3 ± 6.6 (group C) and 11.3 ± 9.0 (group D). There were significant differences between groups A-B (p<0.05), groups B-C (p<0.05), groups B-D (p<0.01) and groups C-D (p<0.01). ). The highest number of recovered embryos was in group D which shows a high number of ovulations too.

Věžník Z., Přinosilová P., Zajícová A.:
Stanovení membránové resistence spermií kance modifikovaným testem HOS
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 44-47

Evaluating the hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) test in relation to fertilizing capacity and sperm motility, a number of authors obtained mostly positive results. If HOS test or sperm vitality staining is performed separately, positive result is obtained from HOS test for spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane (tail coiling as expected) and eosin-negative staining. However, membrane resistance differs among the cells, and after 30 min of exposure to hypoosmotic solution, eosin-positive staining can be observed in some spermatozoa. This indicates disturbed membrane integrity, even though HOS-positive result was obtained. The following categories can be differentiated: HOS-positive sperm – eosin-negative staining = live spermatozoa – intact membrane 2. HOS-negative sperm – eosin-positive staining = dead spermatozoa – damaged membrane 3. HOS-positive sperm – eosin-positive staining = the response of spermatozoa was similar as in live cells, but their membrane damage was induced by the test because their function was impaired. The proportion spermatozoa in the third category detected by this test indicated a decreased resistance of spermatozoa in the tested ejaculates. This fact was confirmed in bulls by correlation between the proportion of spermatozoa in the third category and the changes in resistance of sperm plasma membrane after cryopreservation and their success rates after thawing (r = 0.455; p ? 0.05). Accordingly, the finding predicted sperm membrane quality and the success rates for cryopreservation. In boar spermatozoa, we compared HOS test results and eosin positive staining with sperm quality by the 120-min survival test. The results showed that sperm membrane integrity is a predictor of sperm function. Eosin staining of sperm exposed to HOS solution for 30 min did not show uniform results. Thus spermatozoa classified in category 3 (HOS+Eosin+) showed correlation with the decrease in proportion of live spermatozoa after 120-min survival test: r = 0.522 at p = <0.01. The impairment of sperm quality in ejaculates with higher proportion of HOS+E+ was evident from the calculated values of UKIE index (universal ejaculate quality index) even though differences between the values 3.311 (in the case of lower occurrence) and 3.061 (in the case of higher occurrence) in this category were not significant.

Čítek J. , Šprysl M. , Stupka R. , Kratochvílová H. , Dvořáková V.:
Modelling of the economy with respect to genotype and sex in pigs
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 48-53

For breeders, estimates of the effects influencing the economy of the production of pigs are of prime importance. For this purpose, costs, revenues and profitability were determined on the basis of individual parameters of efficiency of the pigs tested and of average commodity prices. The calculation was the result of the efficiency of the actual animals and of the average and simulated prices of inputs reached by producers in large-scale production operations. 136 animals, 64 of crossbred combinations (LWs x D) x (LWD x L) and 72 of PN x (LWD x L) were used. The total cost for 1 pig represented the costs per weaned piglet, feed and other costs; revenue represented the actual price of a pig at slaughter. Multivariable hierarchical models were constructed to assess the relationships between the following factors: crossbred combination, nutrition and sex, ADG, number of piglets bred, CFM price (feed mixture) and the carcass price with the outcome variable: costs, revenue and profitability. The results demonstrated that the total cost of fattening a pig is considerably influenced by the price of a piglet and feed, not by the price of the carcass and the growth intensity. There was no proof of a relationship between the price of a pig and reproduction respectively, the price for feed. Profitability is significantly influenced by the reproduction rate, price of feed, growth intensity and revenue. The results also showed that the intensity of nutrition and the sex considerably influence the total cost for 1 fattened pig, which represents an increase in the total cost by 105 CZK, in the application of ad libitum feeding techniques, and 150 CZK/pc in the feeding of barrows. The choice of a suitable combination represents a decrease in the total cost by 1.49% and an increase in revenues by 2.93%. Profitability is significantly associated with intensity of nutrition, sex and breed. With unlimited feeding it is reduced by 4.1%, for barrows by 6.6%, and in the use of four-breed combinations of crossbreeds it increases by 4.13%.

Šprysl M., Stupka R.., Čítek J., Dvořáková V., Kratochvílová H.:
The effect of attained backfat thickness on an effective stockintroducion and subsequent reproduction potential in gilts
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 54-58

The body score in gilts can be evaluated on the base of backfat thickness. Since the sows´ parturition and lactation are the key factors of prosperous pig husbandry it is necessary to attain the optimal backfat thickness which directly influenced subsequent reproduction of the sows. This work is concerned with the influence of the gilt body score, expressed of backfat thickness, on their stockincorporating and subsequent reproduction potential. For this purpose the backfat thickness of 96 gilts were monitored before first insemination. In accordance of obtained body score, subsequently, the actual reproduction traits of individual animals were allocated. Within the reproduction the number of total, live born and weaned piglets, average piglet birth weight and weight at weaning, average litter weight at parturition and weaning were observed. The bacfat thickness measuring was monitored by help of SONOMARK SM 100 M instrument in accordance of the performance recording methodology. The obtained results show that with higher backfat thickness the number of total and live born piglets decreased except number of weaned ones. In the frame of whole-life animal potential the influence of body score on average birth weight, respectively weight at weaning in piglets was not confirmed.

Okrouhlá M., Stupka R., Čítek J., Šprysl M., Kratochvílová H.:
The effect of the sex on chemical composition in pork meat
Research in Pig Breeding, 3, 2009 (2): 59-64

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex on chemical composition and amino acid content in pig meat of the main meat parts (MMP) in pigs carcasses. The total of 120 finishing hybrid pigs commonly used in the Czech Republic were fattened in the test station according to test station method. After finishing the test all right half-carcasses were dissected onto individual carcass parts. Lean meat samples were taken from the carcass parts as neck (musculus serratus ventralis), ham (musculus semimembranosus), loin (musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis) and shoulder (musculus cleidocephalicus). The representative ones were homogenized for chemical analyses to determine water, intramuscular fat (IMF), crude protein (CP), ash and selected amino acids (AA) content. From the obtained results of measuring it stands to reson that barrows achieved lower water content values in the neck, ham and shoulder than gilts. Different values were assessed in the IMF content of MMP, when the highest content was find out for neck (barrows, 9.25%), contrary the lowest one for loin (gilts, 1.65%). Statistically highly significant (P<0.0001) difference was observed in shoulder (4.14% versus 3.38%).

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Research in Pig Breeding

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