Volume 2 (2008) | Issue 1 | Issue 2 |

Issue 2, Pages 1-70

Bečková R., Václavková E.:
The effect of age at the first mating on the longevity of czech landrace and czech large white sows
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 1-5

The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyse the effect of age at the first mating on lifetime reproduction efficiency in Czech Large White and Czech Landrace sows. Data about Czech Large White (CLW) and Czech Landrace (CL) sows were obtained from breeding herds and their document registration. The average number of parities (achieved in productive life of sows) decreased with increasing age at the first mating. CLW sows mated at the age about 210 days achieved the highest number of parities (3.49 ± 2.31) and CL sows achieved the highest number of parities (3.16 ± 2.14) at the mating age 211-220 days. The culling rate after the first parity was also monitored in our experiment. 32.31% of CLW sows and 29.94% of CL sows were replaced after the first parity. The average number of piglets in the first litter (total born, live born and weaned) was higher in CL breed compared to CLW breed.

Čechová M., Hadaš Z, Sládek L.:
The effect of stress-sensibilities pietrain boars on carcass values of final hybrid pigs
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 6-8

The aim of our study was to quantify the influence of the fathers‘ genotype in RYR1 gene on the carcass of pigs. A total of 597 market pigs originating from crossbreeds (Czech Large White x Czech Landrace) x Pietrain, fattened under common conditions of large-capacity pig farm were slaughtered, weighted, measured and evaluated by FOM appliance. The slaughtered pigs were classified into groups of homozygous dominant genotype, heterozygous genotype and homozygous recessive genotype according to the father’s genotype. The heaviest carcass and the highest muscling reached the pigs with nn genotype which had the thinnest layer of meat at the same time. The highest fat thickness and carcass length reached pigs with heterozygous genotype and the lowest value of pH1. The differences between these qualitative characteristics were statistically significant among the groups. The obtained results suggest the possibility of using a suitable genotype of RYR1 gene to produce high quality commercial pigs.

Dybała J., Zmudzińska A., Wiśniewska J., Biegniewska M., Jelińska A.:
Relationship between some morphometric traits of reproductive system of primiparous sows and their fertility
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 9-13

The aim of the study was to evaluate the relations between some morphometric traits of reproductive system of primiparous sows determined after slaughter and their fertility. The animal material was group of primiparous sows. At age 140 days animals were fed with the “insulingenic diet” (21 days). Gilts were divided in two groups A and B, and were mated at first or second estrus. After pregnancy, farrowing, lactation and weaning piglets, the sows were slaughtered, and their reproduction systems were evaluated. All calculations were performed using the statistical package STATISTICA 8 PL. Number of born piglets in group of sows mated at first estrus was lower than in group of sows mated at second estrus (8.70 versus 10.05). Differences between A and B groups was highly statistically significant (P?0.01). Positive statistically significant correlations was shown between fertility of sows mated at first estrus and left ovarian weight (r = 0.49; P?0.05) and between the number of piglets and uterus-cervix length in sows from group B (r = 0.40; P?0.05). Moreover, interrelations between each of elements reproductive system (uterus with ligament weight, uterus capacity, ovaries weight, cervix-uterus and horns length) were noted at P?0.01 and at P?0.05.

Jankowiak H., Kapelański W., Wilkanowska A., Jelińska A., Biegniewska M.:
Relationship between carcass and meat quality traits and polymorphism of clps and ryr1 genes in złotnicka spotted pigs
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 14-18

The aim of the study was to characterize the polymorphism of CLPS and RYR1 genes in Złotnicka Spotted breed pigs and to analyse the relation between the CLPS and RYR1 genotypes and carcass and meat quality traits. The study was carried out on 32 fatteners which were slaughtered at approximately 100 to 110 kg body weight. Genomic DNA was extracted using standard molecular biology methods. Polymorphism in the colipase gene (CLPS) was identified with DdeI restriction enzyme as described by Baskin and Pomp (1998) and RYR1 gene with HinPI according to Fujii et al. (1991). In the studied pig population the allele frequencies of CLPS gene were 0.28 for A and 0.72 for B and those of RYR1 gene 0.75 for N and 0.25 for n. Three genotypes at locus CLPS/DdeI and two genotypes at locus RYR1/HinPI were found. Genotype nn/HinPI was not found. Meat quality traits were determined in the longissimus lumborum muscle. Such traits as the meat pH, colour, drip loss and intramuscular fat content were analyzed. None significant differences in carcass and meat quality traits with respect to CLPS or RYR1 pig genotype effects were found. Interactions between CLPS and RYR1 genes were also statistically not significant for all performed values.

Kapelański W., Biegniewska M., Jankowiak H., Zmudzińska A., Jelińska A.:
Results of sow reproductive performance due to application of insulingenic diet and natural stimulation of estrus
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 19-21

The aim of the study was to evaluate sow reproductive performance traits due to administration of diet which enhanced insulin secretion and by early contact with adult boar. The experiment was carried out on 40 crossbred gilts PL x PLW. At age of 142 day animals were fed with diet enriched with maize starch and glucose as the basic source of energy. The diet was given during 21 days and then the gilts were subjected every day to 20 minutes contact with adult boar and were observed in respect to estrus symptoms. Intensity estrus symtoms was evaluated in scale given by Karalus and attained on average 2.37 points. Gilts were mated during second estrus at on average 216 days and at 123.5 kg body weight. Effectivity of natural mating was at 92%. Sows fertility estimated as number of live-born piglet was normal on the level as in breeding herds (10.76 piglets in the litter). Number weaned piglet was 9.94. Litter weight at birth was 16.71 kg and at weaning 60.03 kg. Applicated diet accelerated the ovarian development and physiological function of reproductive system and in conjuction with natural stimulation of sexual puberty by contact with boar the sow reproductive performance results were on the very good level.

Lustyková A., Frydrychová S. , Lipenský J., Vejnar J., Rozkot M.:
Practical aspects of porcine semen collection for conservation and utilization of farm animal genetic resources
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 22-25

The aim of this study was to present the results of boar semen freezing for animal genetic resources. Our activity in this field was done under the supervision of The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) especially under the global network on Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) for Food and Agriculture. The main objective of this activity is focus on the long-term conservation needs, but there is a room and material for research enough. The Westendorf method (FAO recommended this one, Westendorf et al., 1975) or its minor modification (we use the Minitüb modification with some our changes) is still widely used for boar semen cryopreservation for this purpose. We produced 4446 straws from 67 boars of Přeštice black-pied pig during 7 years period. Each ejaculate was tested before and during processing and after thawing. Average volume of ejaculate was 190.5 ml with 489.12 x 103/mm3 spermatozoa. Sperm motility was 78.87 % before processing and 32.83 % after thawing. Forty-eight sows were inseminated with 52.08 % conception rate. The main success of this activity was the revitalization of four extinct genealogical lines of boars.

Šprysl M., Stupka R., Čítek J., Okrouhlá M., Kratochvílová H.:
The effect of genotype and sex on the proportion of the main meat part differences in the present population of pigs
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 26-32

The objective of this study was to evaluace by help of station tests the size of sex effect on the carcass compozition in the hybrid pig populations, that are most frequently used in the spere of productional herds. It included 6 combinations of 60 heads of pigs of a uniform ratio of sex, where breeds of (LWDxL) were in the AB-position and boars of LWS, D, PN, LWSxBL, PNxD and PNxH in the C-position. All pigs were penned according to testing methodology of purebreds and hybrid pigs and fed according to the standards ad libitum with complete feed mixtures. After their implementation in the live weight of 104.8-115.2 kg resp.156-194 days from birth the main meat parts were determined and compared with respect to sex by help of biometric model with fixed effects. On the obtained results it could be stated that weight formation of the shoulder, neck and belly parts are not influenced by sex. Concerned of weight formation of the joint, this part is only influenced by sex in genotypes (LWDxL)x LWS, (LWDxL)x D and (LWDxL)x(PNxH). Concerned of the ham formation, it is significantly influenced by sex.

Urbánková L., Vejnar J., Rozkot M.:
Non-surgical transfer of porcine embryos to different uterine sites and effect of transferred embryos number on monitored parameters
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 33-35

Embryo transfer in pigs normally involves surgery. In connection with the development of non-surgical transfer techniques, it is important to know whether the uterine site to which embryos are transferred has an effect on the success rate. The aim of this paper was compare two methods of non-surgical embryo transfer. Using the first method embryos were placed into the uterine body, using the second method embryos were placed approximately into the middle of uterine horn. Embryos were recovered post mortem from superovulated donors. Recipients were synchronized by feeding Regumate and by application of PMSG and HCG (gilts) or by piglets weaning (sows). In the first method an insemination probe completed with silicon rigid catheter was used for embryo transfer. Using this probe embryos were put into the corpus uteri. In the second method the intrauterine insemination probe “Verona” completed with silicon rigid catheter was used for embryos transfer. Using this method embryos were put into the middle of one of uterine horns. 42% (10/24) and 56% (12/22) of the recipients remained pregnant after transfer of embryos to the uterus body and to the middle of one of uterine horn. Litter size per pregnant recipients was 5.5 vs. 6.6 piglets, embryos survival rate was 10 vs. 11% (first method vs. second method). Non significant differences were found out between methods. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of number of transferred embryos on number of born piglets. Recipients were divided into 3 groups according to amount of transferred embryos. From 5 to 15 embryos were transferred into recipients in the first group (A), from 16 to 25 embryos were transferred into recipients in the second group (B) and 26 and more embryos were transferred into recipients in the third group (C). 42, 52 and 50% of the recipients remained pregnant after transfer of 5-15, 15-25 and 25and more embryos. Embryos survival rates were 14, 11 and 7%. Analysis of variance was carried out. There were not found significant differences between groups A-B, A-C and B-C.

Václavková E., Bečková R.:
Effect of herbal extract on growth parameters of weaned piglets
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 36-38

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of Quillaja saponaria extract on growth ability and growth parameters in piglets after weaning. Forty newly weaned piglets (28 days of age) were divided into a negative control group (C) and experimental group (QS) - ten gilts and ten barrows in every group. The preparation containing extracts from Quillaja saponaria was added to experimental diet (commercial feed mixture + 125 g/t). Piglets were weighed at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the experiment. Live weight of piglets and average daily weight gain were higher in QS group during the whole experiment but result was not found statistically significant (P>0,05). The feed consumption was also monitored in the experiment. Piglets in QS group had higher feed consumption but they achieved better feed conversion (feed consumption/kg of weight gain).

Vališ L., Vítek M., David L., Pulkrábek J.:
Lean meat content and distribution in pig carcasses
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 39-41

A total of 152 carcasses from final pig hybrids were analysed with the aim to determine the lean meat content and its distribution among different carcass parts. The lean meat contents were expressed as proportions from carcass weights. The average lean meat proportion of the whole set of carcasses was 55.61 %. The lean meat contents in leg, loin, shoulder, filet, and other parts were 18.31, 9.76, 8.18, 5.30, 1.22, and 12.84 %, respectively. Gilts had a significantly higher average lean meat content (56.10 %) compared to barrows (55.13 %), mainly as a result of gender differences in leg and loin conformation. Lean meat content and distribution were also analysed in different carcass weight intervals to determine the effect of carcass weight. Significantly different lean meat contents were found between carcasses weighing less than 95 kg and heavier. A similar tendency was confirmed in the lean meat distribution among the main meaty parts when the weight limit of 95 kg also proved to be significant.

Daněk P., Rozkot M.:
Influence of lecithin emulsifier on piglets after weaning
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 42-44

The influence of supplementation of a lecithin emulsifier (0.1%) to the commercial feed mixture for piglets after weaning was studied. Totally 28 piglets in the control group (C - without lecithin) and 28 piglets in an experimental (E) group were monitored in three replications in a 28-day experimental period. The experiment started on the weaning day at the age of 28 days and ended four weeks later. The weight of piglets and feed consumption were monitored in weekly intervals. For digestibility determination the faeces were collected from the floor of pens last two days of every week. The digestibility was determined by calculating the content of nutrients in feed and faeces concerning the content of the marker (insoluble portion of ash). Statistically insignificantly higher was daily average gain (C = 383.3, E = 399.5 g) of experimental groups and statistically significantly lower feed conversion ratio (C = 1.959, E = 1.806 kg/kg, P<0.01) were found out. The improvement of increase of weight was registered every week of experiment too. We observed higher digestibility of monitored nutrients in the experimental group, only differences in crude protein was statistically significant (C = 78.50, E = 82.20% P<0.01). Average daily gain weight was 292 g in control and 304 g in experimental group in an additional field experiment (C = 1235, E = 1174 piglets from birth to 81 days of age). According to the results presented in this study we can draw a conclusion that the supplementation of lecithin emulsifier to the commercial mixture for piglets in the period from weaning has a positive impact on the utilisation of dietary nutrients in piglets in the post-weaning period.

Mareš P., Zeman L., Večerek M.:
The effect of feeding additives with plant secondary metabolites on nutrients digestibility in pigs
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 45-49

In this work was an effect of anise and fennel essential oils as well as four plant by-products from spices on nutrients utilization evaluated in pig balance experiment. The trial was organized in authorized experimental stable Žabcice of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno. The high level efficiency of experimental animals is mentioned through general parameters (average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion). The results of nutrients utilization rate show slightly higher digestibility of nutrients in treatment with anise essential oil these improving are not higher then 1.0 %. We can see also improving on nitrogen retention in body mass on level of 5.6 % (anise treatment compared with control group). There is low variability between experimental animals (except nitrogen retention coeficient) but we cannot see any statistical significance. On base of these results we can say the used phytogennic additives do not affect negatively the nutrient utilization in used concentration (0.1 % of essential oil in feed mixture) and are from this point of view fully eligible for animal nutrition. These results are also supported by few research papers connected with similar topic. On second hand there were evaluated also four byproducts from spice industry that contain plant secondary metabolites and can be used in animal nutrition. There were spent from coriander, allspice, pepper and cumin evaluated. In general these additives decreased slightly the digestibility of monitored nutrients but it was not statistically significant and these additives can also be used in animal production if there will not be found out other negative effects.

Opletal L., Rozkot M., Lustyková A., Frydrychová S., Daněk P., Václavková E.:
Natural compounds potentially influencing pig reproduction - review
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 50-54

Breeding pigs has had many problems at present. Due to them number and the range of breeds have been decreasing significantly. Therefore the import of pork to the Czech market seems to be a very probable consequence of this state. This may substantially harm Czech producers. At the same time the solution of the specialist questions in the field of reproduction, solved by the workplaces of the Czech Republic, may be made more complicated. Problems that appear in this field have had a relatively long history. Their accumulation leads to serious thinking about how to reasonably proceed in the field of the research of the reproduction potential of a pig. The complexity of this process is multiplied by the different physiology of both animal sexotypes. The imbalance in these physiological processes has developed in a dissociated way which increases the entropy in a present view of the problem solution. The revision of the state shows that greater chances exist in the case of influencing the reproduction of boars than that of sows. It also shows that the main role is played by the selection of animals for breeding with possible application of additives of natural origin which do not play the role of medicaments. Hormonal interventions in the form of medicaments administered in an exogenic way have not been considered realistic at present. It is being proved that these additives should comprise a wider group of compounds influencing not only the reproduction system but also other physiological functions (stress, colon ecology). This, together with breeding interventions, can significantly contribute to the improvement of reproduction parameters. At the same time it has to be considered that the application of natural substances in pig breeding is new and has not been described yet. Therefore there is no other choice than to use the knowledge from the closest suitable area – human application (Opletal, Šimerda 2008).

Stephan K., Kauffold J., Bartol F.F., Wehrend A., Wähner M.:
Effects of a perinatal zearalenone donation on reproductive organs from sows and female piglets
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 55-58

On the International Workshop „Research in Pig Breeding“ in 2007 first results from a field experiment working with the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZON) have been presented. The title was “Zearalenone and its effect on sows and piglets”. In this study the effects from a ZON-donation during the last time of gestation and the suckling period was investigated. Therefore several parameters from 15 sows and their 161 life born piglets were collected. Now there are some more results available about the analysis of the bile of sows and piglets and the milk of sows. In addition to that more animals (plus 3 sows and 32 piglets comparing with first article) could be included into different calculations. With regard to the birth weights there were no differences comparing piglets from ZON-sows with CON-sows found. On life day 19 higher values for piglets having ZON influence during lactation time (GL and nGL) were detected. There were no changes looking to the weights from reproductive organs from sows and piglets including more animals. The lab defined zearalenone and their metabolites ?- and ß-zearalenol (?- and ß-ZOL) in the bile and in the milk. For ZON-sows all mycotoxins were detected in the bile, but just ZON in the milk. In the bile from piglets, having no influence from ZON during lactation time (nGnL and GnL), no ZON was found. Just ?-ZOL was detected for 2 animals. Piglets, having influence from ZON-sows during lactation (nGL and GL), ZON and also ?-ZOL accumulated in the bile.

Fischer K., Bruessow KP., Bergfeld U., Waehner M.:
Investigations on embryonic and fetal losses of piglets of german landrace sows
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 59-62

A high number of live born and especially vital piglets is the basis for an efficient piglet production. In an experiment the amount of embryonic and fetal losses in German Landrace sows was investigated. To achieve an optimal number of piglets it is necessary to make use of the high potential in fertility. The difference between the number of ovulated oocytes and the number of life born piglets is an indicator of the degree of the use of this potential. The experiment was conducted in a pig breeding farm on three dates of biological relevance, on day three of gestation (number of ovulated oocytes), on day 30 of gestation (end of embryonic development) and on day 80 of gestation (end of fetal development). At all 93 gilts have been used. The following aspects have been detected: number of ovulated oocytes, number of corpora lutea, number, length and weight of embryos and fetuses, length and weight of ovary and uterus. At day 3 of gestation only 56.4% of detected oocytes are fertilized and intact. As a result the amount of embryonic losses at day 30 of gestations is 36.9%. The amount of fetal losses is less than 1%. The number of corpora lutea has an influence on the amount of embryonic losses. If there are more than 24 corpora lutea, the amount of embryonic losses rises up to 63%. In contrast, the fetal losses are not increased. The results of this experiment show, that there is still a high potential in fertility that should be used.

Dolejš J., Toufar O., Adamec T., Knížek J.:
The effect of pig activity on the emission of ammonia
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (2): 63-70

Three experiments (Exp.) with a group of 10 pigs were carried out to assess the effect of pig behaviour on the daily emission of NH3. In Exp.1 under normal housing conditions (flat floor bedded with straw), the correlations (r) between NH3 emission and duration of feeding or drinking (FD), moving (MO), and lying (LY) were +0.78, +0.73, and -0.77, respectively. The coefficient of determination (r2) of the model was 0.662. Similar correlation coefficients were observed in Exp. 3 when the air in the stable was ionized: +0.67, +0.54, and -0.67 for FD, MO, and LY, respectively (r2 = 0.596). Considerably different values were recorded in Exp.2 at an increased air flow rate. The correlations between NH3 emission and FD, MO, and LY were +0.38, +0.38, and +0.39, respectively (r2 = 0.350). It was proven that the limiting element was the air flow rate inside the house. The limit value of this element is ca 0.30 m.s-1. Daily emissions of NH3 per one animal were 8.16, 9.92, and 5.81 g under normal

Issue 1, Pages 1-39

Daněk P., Bednář V., Smola J., Rozkot M.:
Influence of different surface of floor of farrowing pens on limbs injury
Research in Pig Breeding, 2 , 2008 (1): 1-3

Mass occurrence of skin abrasion with following infection of wounds and joints was documented in suckling piglets in farrowing pens in commercial pig farm. Skin trauma was evoked due to employment of disinfectant with glycerin content that created oil film on the flat and smooth surface of plastic grates where piglets slide back. This induced wound infection and following arthritis rise produced by Streptococcus suis serovar 1. Deletion of disinfections was demonstrated by reduction injury of thoracic limb from 70 to 50 % of piglets (P>0,01). Covering of slippery grates by plastic matting was demonstrated by significant (P>0,01) reduction injury of thoracic (from 50 on old grates resp. 36 on new grates to 7%) and pelvic (from 86 resp. 95 to 44 % of piglets) limbs to.

David L. , Vališ L. , Vítek M. , Pulkrábek J.:
Estimating of the content of main meaty parts in the pig carcass depending on selected characteristics
RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 2 , 2008 (1): 4-6

The aim of the work was to estimate the content of main meaty parts (MMP) in the pig carcass. The group of 42 carcasses was selected with regards to the representative lean meat content and equability of sex. All measurements were done on the left carcass half. One day after slaughter were all carcasses divided into primal cuts and the content of MMP has been determined in the amount of 53.78 %. The average lean meat content was 57.23 % and the average carcass weight 93.5 kg. In the first model was calculated the regression formula using the fat thickness and meat thickness measured with the FOM: Y = 58.18877 – 0.66022S * 0.08448M. The RMSE reached 1.63 and the correlation coefficient 0.91. The second model is using three most correlative characteristics (concerning the content of MMP) and the following regression formula was worked out: Y = 64.54473 – 0.14908S1 – 0.22948ZPS1 – 0.11336 ZPS2. (RMSE = 1.86; r = 0.88). Both regression formulae fulfil the statistical requirements for the accuracy of the estimation.

Martečíková S., Hulínská P., Rečková Z., Hanzalová K., Ješeta M., Machatková M.:
Acrosome reaction progress in frozen-thawed and capacitated boar spermatozoa influences the efficiency of in vitro fertilization
RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 2 , 2008 (1): 7-11

In this study functional status in boar spermatozoa collected from frozen-thawed semen and capacitated in vitro by caffeine was monitored. The motile spermatozoa of boars (A, B and C) were isolated by Percoll gradient, treated with 1mM or 2mM caffeine and incubated in IVF medium or co-incubated with matured porcine oocytes for 3 hours. Motility, viability, acrosome integrity and fertilizing ability of spermatozoa were evaluated. Motility and viability of spermatozoa lightly decreased during capacitation in all tested boars independently of caffeine treatment (from 50.4±8.5 to 38.8±5.8 and from 56.0±6.9 to 43.9±5.5, respectively). The acrosome reaction was faster for 1mM caffeine-treated compared with 2mM caffeine-treated spermatozoa in all sires but its progress was different in each boar. The mean penetration rate was higher for 2mM caffeine-treated compared with 1mM caffeine-treated spermatozoa. On the other side, monospermy was higher and the mean % ±SD of normal fertilization was significantly higher (p<0.5) for 1mM caffeine-treated compared with 2mM caffeinetreated spermatozoa for all tested boars (29.8±6.1 vs. 12.7±5.6). It can be concluded that the progress of acrosome reaction was specific for spermatozoa of each boar and influenced the efficiency of normal IVF process.

Bea Klinzing Nielsen:
Botanicals as feed additives to improve health and production in pigs
RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 2 , 2008 (1): 12-18

The need for natural alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters is an important issue in animal production following the European ban of antibiotic growth promoters in 2006. The high production level with still increasing demands as well as production sites that have to fulfil high quality standards at low costs result in high stress levels for the animals and will increase the demand for bioactive elements with effects on health and production. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of different blends of botanicals rich in polyphenols on production parameters in piglets (Experiment 1 with additives based on a combination of citrus, grape and chestnut), in finishers (Experiment 2 with additives based on a combination of green tea, white willow bark, olive leaves and chestnut) and on mortality in piglets in herds with PMWS problems (Experiment 3 with additives based on a combination of green tea, white willow bark, olive leaves and chestnut). Supplementing piglets with natural additives resulted in improved daily gain in the period following weaning of 29% (P<0.01), feed intake of 20% (P<0.01) and feed utilization by 13% (P<0.01) (Experiment 1). The number of outbreak of diarrhoea was reduced when supplementing weaned piglets with the natural feed additive. Supplementing finisher pigs with a natural additive resulted in increased daily gain of 8 % (P< 0.01) and an improved feed utilization of 10% (Experiment 2). Supplementing piglets from herds with PMWS problems with a natural additive resulted in reduced mortality from 5.8% to 3.1% (Experiment 3). Trial results suggest positive effects of including selected botanical additives on production parameters like daily gain and feed utilization of piglets and finishers as well as on several health parameters.

Rozkot M., Opletal L., Lustyková A., Frydrychová S., Daněk P., Václavková E.:
Effect of herbal extract on reproduction functions of boars
RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 2 , 2008 (1): 19-20

Restricted sexual functions are very weighty problem between boars in insemination stations. Producers of additives and researches are searching new additives for repression of stress factors, which are main reasons of these sexual dysfunctions. Aim of our study was searching suitable extracts from herbs with positive effect to reproductive ability of boars. For our experiment, we prepared extract from Eurycoma longifolia, Tribulus terrestris and Leuzea carthamoides, containing specific effective substances. Dry mixture of these extracts with lauric acid was used in our two experiments in the insemination station. 10 boars in the experimental (E) and 10 boars in the control (C) group were observed in each experiment 60 days. For experiment group was daily feeding ration supplemented by tested product, for control group by carrier only. In the experimental period was registered libido sexualis and samples of ejaculate was tested for motility and morphology of sperms and biochemical examine of ejaculate was made. We registered significant improving of libido sexualis (C = 3.84, E = 3.58, P<0.05). The quality of ejaculate of experimental boars was no altered, contents of free amino acids was improved. Anticipated positive effect of extract from Eurycoma longifolia, Tribulus terrestris and Leuzea carthamoides on reproduction functions of boars was in our experiment certified.

Sládek L. , Mikule V. , Čechová M. , Chládek G.:
An influence of hybrid combination and sex on growth ability of carcasspigs
RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 2 , 2008 (1): 21-25

The aim of the study was to determine an influence of tested hybrid combinations and sex on growth ability of carcass pigs. Two combinations of hybrid pigs were used in this study: (CLW x CL) x CLW – sire line and (CLW x CL) x (D x H). On a base of determined and mentioned values it is possible to express that better statistically highly conclusive (P?0.01) growth ability (expressed by average daily gains from born till slaughtering) it was found in carcass pigs of hybrid combination, where hybrid boars (D x H) were used (580 g) in comparison with combination with boars CLW – sire line (561 g). Statistically significant differences in average daily gains were not found in any period of study (from born till weaning, in pre-fattening, in fattening). Hogs and gilts reached similar daily gains from born till weaning and in pre-fattening. Better growth ability of hogs was found in fattening which can be used for separate fattening and for optimalization of slaughter weight. Hogs reached for 40 g better an average daily gain in fattening in comparison with gilts.

Smital J. , Fiedler J.:
Comparison of differences in boar sperm output between periods 1990-97 and 2000-07
RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 2 , 2008 (1): 26-27

Boars in an artificial insemination centre must produce semen that will sire pigs that the ultimate consumer will buy (Robinson and Buhr, 2005). The research in the area is crucial for pig breeders because the importance of a boar for the reproductive performance of the herd is high, particularly if the boar is mated to many females (Rutten et al., 2000; Oh et al., 2003). A number of experiments demonstrate that boars differ in fertility traits due to environmental effects and due to their inherent variation (Dziuk, 1996; Rothschild, 1996; Jankeviciute and Zilinskas, 2002). Therefore, a lot of current experimental studies research the reproductive fitness of boars from the standpoint of several criterions (Kunc et al., 2000; Corcuera et al., 2000; Gadea et al., 2001; Serniene and Zilinskas, 2001; Leiding, 2002). The objective of this study was to compare the differences in boar sperm output between periods 1990-1997 and 2000-2007 using a large data set from insemination centers.

Stupka R., Šprysl M., Čítek J., Okrouhlá M., Kratochvílová H.:
The effect of meat bone meal substituation by plant protein in the complete feeding mixtures on economy in hybrid pigs
RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 2 , 2008 (1): 28-34

Analysis of impact of replacement the meat-bone meal for vegetable protein – soybean – on selected parameters of fattening efficiency, carcass value and especially economy of production on fattening of final hybrids of pigs, was the major objective of this work. 72 heads of hybrid combination pigs were classified in the test in total – cross-breeding of father – mother (LWs x PN)x(LWd x L). The testing fattening period took 91 days. The pigs on the stock were sorted out into groups I and II for the purposes of verification of meat-bone meal replacement, while the group I was fed with a complete feeding mixture using the meat-bone meal and the group II was fed with a complete feed mixture where the animal protein was replaced by vegetable one, especially the soybean extracted coarse meal. As regards the achieved live weight, feed conversion ratio and average daily gain in the end of the test it is obvious that identical values were achieved in both groups (106.0kg resp. 106.2kg; 2.65kg resp. 2.66kg; 921g resp. 917g). Despite of practically identical weight achieved in regular intervals during the tests in both evaluated groups, a higher generation of meat in pig bodies of the group I was found out in comparison to the group II, while the difference between both of the groups is equal to approximately 1.5% of meat during the growth period. Therefore, no difference between the monitored groups was found out within the overall evaluation (34.03% resp. 34.04%). The found-out results show that the meat-bone meal replacement by soyabean has no impact on the overall achieved rate of return of the breed from the economy points of view.

Václavková E., Bečková R.:
Housing systems and pig performance – review
RESEARCH IN PIG BREEDING, 2 , 2008 (1): 35-39

This article is a review of findings about different housing systems-outdoor and indoor- in pig breeding in relation to pig performance and meat quality. Outdoor production system allows animals display their natural behaviour connected with feeding habits and with maternal behaviour. Animals in this production system have better health status but it is necessary to pay attention to parasite control. The outdoor production system is less dependent on input investment and capital. One of negative respects is addiction to climatic conditions. Carcass traits and meat quality parameters are also affected by production system. But it is not possible to clearly specify what kind of production system is better from meat quality point of view. Fatty acid content in meat is mainly affected via diet. Some feeds (for example grass, oil plants) can affect fatty acid content disregarding housing system.

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Research in Pig Breeding

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